بۆ ناوەڕۆک بازبدە

پێڕستی وەرگرانی خەڵاتی نۆبێل لە فیزیۆلۆژیا یان پزیشکی

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە

خەڵاتی نۆبێل لە فیزیۆلۆژیا یان پزیشکی (بە ئینگلیزی: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine) یەکێکە لە زنجیرە خەڵاتی نۆبێل کە دەبەخشرێت بە کەسانی شایستە لە بواری پزیشکی یان فیزیۆلۆژیادا بۆ دۆزینەوە و کارەکانیان لەم بوارانەدا.

وەرگرەکان[دەستکاری]

١٩٠١–١٩٥٠[دەستکاری]

ساڵ وەرگر[A] وڵات[B] ھۆکار[C]
١٩٠١ Emil Adolf von Behring ئەڵمانیا "بەهۆی کارەکانی لەسەر چارەسەری سیرۆم، بەتایبەتی بەکارهێنانی لە دژی نەخۆشی کۆپان، کە بەهۆیەوە ڕێگایەکی نوێی لە بواری زانستی پزیشکیدا کردۆتەوە و بەو هۆیەوە چەکێکی سەرکەوتووی لە دژی نەخۆشی و مردن خستۆتە دەستی پزیشک"[١]
١٩٠٢ Sir Ronald Ross شانشینی یەکگرتوو "بۆ کارەکانی لەسەر مالاریا، کە بەهۆیەوە نیشانی داوە کە چۆن دەچێتە ناو زیندەوەران و بەو هۆیەوە بناغەی لێکۆڵینەوەی سەرکەوتووی لەسەر ئەم نەخۆشییە و شێوازەکانی بەرەنگاربوونەوەی داناوە".[٢]
١٩٠٣ Niels Ryberg Finsen دانمارک
(دوورگەکانی فارۆ)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[٣]
١٩٠٤ Ivan Petrovich Pavlov ڕووسیا "وەک ڕێزلێنانێک بۆ کارەکانی لەسەر فیزیۆلۆژیای ھەرسکردن، کە لە ڕێگەیەوە زانیاری لەسەر لایەنە ژیانییەکانی بابەتەکە گۆڕاوە و فرەواننتر بووە"[٤]
١٩٠٥ Robert Koch ئەڵمانیا "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to دەردەباریکە"[٥]
١٩٠٦ Camillo Golgi ئیتالیا "in recognition of their work on the structure of the کۆئەندامی دەمار"[٦]
Santiago Ramón y Cajal ئیسپانیا
١٩٠٧ Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran فەڕەنسا "in recognition of his work on the role played by زیندەوەرە سەرەتاییەکان in causing diseases"[٧]
١٩٠٨ Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov ڕووسیا "in recognition of their work on کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[٨]
Paul Ehrlich ئەڵمانیا
١٩٠٩ Emil Theodor Kocher سویس "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the تیرۆئید"[٩]
١٩١٠ Albrecht Kossel ئەڵمانیا "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on پرۆتینs, including the nucleic substances"[١٠]
١٩١١ Allvar Gullstrand سوید "for his work on the dioptrics of the چاوی مرۆڤ"[١١]
١٩١٢ Alexis Carrel فەڕەنسا "بۆ کارەکانی لەسەر خوێنبەرەکان دزین و چاندنی خوێنبۆری و ئەندامەکان."[١٢]
١٩١٣ Charles Richet فەڕەنسا "[for] his work on anaphylaxis"[١٣]
١٩١٤ Robert Bárány نەمسا "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[١٤]
١٩١٥ Not awarded
١٩١٦
١٩١٧
١٩١٨
١٩١٩ Jules Bordet بەلجیکا "for his discoveries relating to کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[١٥]
١٩٢٠ Schack August Steenberg Krogh دانمارک "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[١٦]
١٩٢١ Not awarded
١٩٢٢ Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "بۆ دۆزینەوەی پەیوەندیدار بە بەرهەمهێنانی گەرمی لە ماسوولکە"[١٧]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof ئەڵمانیا "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of ئۆکسجین and the مێتابۆلیزم of lactic acid in the muscle"[١٧]
١٩٢٣ Frederick Grant Banting کەنەدا "بۆ دۆزینەوەی ئەنسۆلین"[١٨]
John James Rickard Macleod کەنەدا
١٩٢٤ Willem Einthoven ھۆلەند "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[١٩]
١٩٢٥ Not awarded
١٩٢٦ Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger دانمارک "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[٢٠]
١٩٢٧ Julius Wagner-Jauregg نەمسا "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of مالاریا inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[٢١]
١٩٢٨ Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France "for his work on typhus"[٢٢]
١٩٢٩ Christiaan Eijkman The Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic ڤیتامین"[٢٣]
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating ڤیتامینs"[٢٣]
١٩٣٠ Karl Landsteiner نەمسا "for his discovery of human blood groups"[٢٤]
١٩٣١ Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[٢٥]
١٩٣٢ Sir Charles Scott Sherrington United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of دەمارەخانەs"[٢٦]
Edgar Douglas Adrian United Kingdom
١٩٣٣ Thomas Hunt Morgan ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکانی ئەمریکا "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the کرۆمۆسۆم in heredity"[٢٧]
١٩٣٤ George Hoyt Whipple United States "for their discoveries concerning جەرگ therapy in cases of anaemia"[٢٨]
George Richards Minot United States
William Parry Murphy United States
١٩٣٥ Hans Spemann Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[٢٩]
١٩٣٦ Sir Henry Hallett Dale United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[٣٠]
Otto Loewi Austria
١٩٣٧ Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt مەجارستان "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[٣١]
١٩٣٨ Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[٣٢]
١٩٣٩ Gerhard Domagk Germany "for the discovery of the دژە زیندەیی effects of prontosil"[٣٣]
١٩٤٠ Not awarded
١٩٤١
١٩٤٢
١٩٤٣ Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[٣٤]
Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[٣٤]
١٩٤٤ Joseph Erlanger United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[٣٥]
Herbert Spencer Gasser United States
١٩٤٥ Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom "for the discovery of پێنیسیلین and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[٣٦]
Sir Ernst Boris Chain United Kingdom
Howard Walter Florey ئۆسترالیا
١٩٤٦ پەڕگە:Hermann Joseph Muller.jpg Hermann Joseph Muller ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکانی ئەمریکا "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of تیشکی ئێکس irradiation"[٣٧]
١٩٤٧ Carl Ferdinand Cori United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[٣٨]
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States
Bernardo Alberto Houssay ئارجەنتین "for his discovery of the part played by the ھۆرمۆن of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of گلووکۆز"[٣٨]
١٩٤٨ Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[٣٩]
١٩٤٩ Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[٤٠]
António Caetano Egas Moniz پورتوگال "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[٤٠]
١٩٥٠ Philip Showalter Hench United States "for their discoveries relating to the ھۆرمۆنs of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[٤١]
پەڕگە:Edward Calvin Kendall nobel.jpg Edward Calvin Kendall United States
Tadeusz Reichstein Switzerland
Poland

١٩٥١–٢٠٠٠[دەستکاری]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
١٩٥١ Max Theiler ئەفریقای باشوور "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[٤٢]
١٩٥٢ Selman Abraham Waksman United States "for his discovery of سترێپتۆمایسین، the first دژە زیندەیی effective against دەردەباریکە"[٤٣]
١٩٥٣ Sir ھانس ئەدۆڵف کریبس United Kingdom "for his discovery of the سوڕی کریبس"[٤٤]
Fritz Albert Lipmann United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[٤٤]
١٩٥٤ پەڕگە:John Franklin Enders nobel.jpg John Franklin Enders United States "for their discovery of the ability of شەپڵەی منداڵان ڤایرووسes to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[٤٥]
Frederick Chapman Robbins United States
پەڕگە:Thomas Huckle Weller.jpg Thomas Huckle Weller United States
١٩٥٥ Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[٤٦]
١٩٥٦ André Frédéric Cournand United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the کۆئەندامی سووڕان"[٤٧]
Werner Forssmann ئاڵمانیای ڕۆژاوا
Dickinson W. Richards United States
١٩٥٧ Daniel Bovet ئیتالیا "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[٤٨]
١٩٥٨ پەڕگە:George Wells Beadle.jpg George Wells Beadle United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[٤٩]
پەڕگە:Edward Lawrie Tatum nobel.jpg Edward Lawrie Tatum United States
Joshua Lederberg United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of بەکتریا"[٤٩]
١٩٥٩ Arthur Kornberg United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ئار ئێن ئەی and دی ئێن ئەی"[٥٠]
پەڕگە:Severo Ochoa nobel.jpg Severo Ochoa Spain
United States
١٩٦٠ Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[٥١]
Sir Peter Brian Medawar Brazil
United Kingdom
١٩٦١ Georg von Békésy United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[٥٢]
١٩٦٢ Francis Harry Compton Crick United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[٥٣]
James Dewey Watson United States
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins نیوزیلاند
United Kingdom
١٩٦٣ پەڕگە:Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the دەمار cell membrane"[٥٤]
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin United Kingdom
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley United Kingdom
١٩٦٤ Konrad Bloch United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the کۆلیستڕۆڵ and ترشەکانی چەوری مێتابۆلیزم"[٥٥]
Feodor Lynen Federal Republic of Germany
١٩٦٥ François Jacob France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[٥٦]
André Lwoff France
Jacques Monod France
١٩٦٦ Peyton Rous United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing ڤایرووسes"[٥٧]
پەڕگە:Charles Brenton Huggins nobel.jpg Charles Brenton Huggins United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[٥٧]
١٩٦٧ Ragnar Granit Finland/Sweden "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the چاوی مرۆڤ"[٥٨]
Haldan Keffer Hartline United States
George Wald United States
١٩٦٨ پەڕگە:Robert W. Holley nobel.jpg Robert W. Holley United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[٥٩]
پەڕگە:Har Gobind Khorana nobel.jpg Har Gobind Khorana India
Marshall W. Nirenberg United States
١٩٦٩ Max Delbrück United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of ڤایرووسes"[٦٠]
Alfred D. Hershey United States
Salvador E. Luria Italy
United States
١٩٧٠ Julius Axelrod United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[٦١]
Ulf von Euler Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz United Kingdom
١٩٧١ Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of ھۆرمۆنs"[٦٢]
١٩٧٢ Gerald M. Edelman United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[٦٣]
Rodney R. Porter United Kingdom
١٩٧٣ پەڕگە:Karl Ritter von Frisch.jpg Karl von Frisch Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[٦٤]
Konrad Lorenz Austria
Nikolaas Tinbergen United Kingdom
١٩٧٤ Albert Claude بەلجیکا "for their discoveries concerning the ئەندامۆچکە"[٦٥]
Christian de Duve Belgium
George E. Palade Romania
١٩٧٥ David Baltimore United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between ڤایرووسes and the genetic material of the cell"[٦٦]
Renato Dulbecco Italy
United States
Howard Martin Temin United States
١٩٧٦ Baruch S. Blumberg United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[٦٧]
D. Carleton Gajdusek United States
١٩٧٧ Roger Guillemin United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the مێشک"[٦٨]
Andrew V. Schally United States
Rosalyn Yalow United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[٦٨]
١٩٧٨ Werner Arber Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[٦٩]
Daniel Nathans United States
Hamilton O. Smith United States
١٩٧٩ Allan M. Cormack South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography"[٧٠]
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield United Kingdom
١٩٨٠ Baruj Benacerraf Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[٧١]
Jean Dausset France
George D. Snell United States
١٩٨١ Roger W. Sperry United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[٧٢]
David H. Hubel United States "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[٧٢]
Torsten N. Wiesel Sweden
١٩٨٢ Sune K. Bergström Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[٧٣]
Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden
Sir John R. Vane United Kingdom
١٩٨٣ Barbara McClintock United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[٧٤]
١٩٨٤ Niels K. Jerne Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the کۆئەندامی بەرگری and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[٧٥]
Georges J.F. Köhler Federal Republic of Germany
César Milstein ئارجەنتین
United Kingdom
١٩٨٥ Michael S. Brown United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of کۆلیستڕۆڵ مێتابۆلیزم"[٧٦]
Joseph L. Goldstein United States
١٩٨٦ Stanley Cohen United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[٧٧]
Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy
United States
١٩٨٧ Susumu Tonegawa ژاپۆن "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[٧٨]
١٩٨٨ Sir James W. Black United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[٧٩]
Gertrude B. Elion United States
George H. Hitchings United States
١٩٨٩ J. Michael Bishop United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[٨٠]
Harold E. Varmus United States
١٩٩٠ Joseph E. Murray United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[٨١]
E. Donnall Thomas United States
١٩٩١ Erwin Neher Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[٨٢]
Bert Sakmann Federal Republic of Germany
١٩٩٢ Edmond H. Fischer Switzerland
United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible پرۆتین phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[٨٣]
Edwin G. Krebs United States
١٩٩٣ Sir Richard J. Roberts United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes"[٨٤]
Phillip A. Sharp United States
١٩٩٤ Alfred G. Gilman United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[٨٥]
Martin Rodbell United States
١٩٩٥ Edward B. Lewis United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[٨٦]
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Federal Republic of Germany
Eric F. Wieschaus United States
١٩٩٦ Peter C. Doherty Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[٨٧]
Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland
١٩٩٧ Stanley B. Prusiner United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[٨٨]
١٩٩٨ Robert F. Furchgott United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[٨٩]
Louis J. Ignarro United States
Ferid Murad United States
١٩٩٩ Günter Blobel United States "for the discovery that پرۆتینs have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[٩٠]
٢٠٠٠ Arvid Carlsson Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the کۆئەندامی دەمار"[٩١]
Paul Greengard United States
Eric R. Kandel United States

٢٠٠١-ئێستا[دەستکاری]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
٢٠٠١ Leland H. Hartwell United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[٩٢]
Sir Tim Hunt United Kingdom
Sir Paul M. Nurse United Kingdom
٢٠٠٢ Sydney Brenner South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[٩٣]
H. Robert Horvitz United States
Sir John E. Sulston United Kingdom
٢٠٠٣ Paul Lauterbur United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[٩٤]
Sir Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
٢٠٠٤ Richard Axel United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[٩٥]
Linda B. Buck United States
٢٠٠٥ Barry J. Marshall Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[٩٦]
J. Robin Warren Australia
٢٠٠٦ Andrew Z. Fire United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[٩٧]
Craig C. Mello United States
٢٠٠٧ Mario R. Capecchi United States "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[٩٨]
Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom
Oliver Smithies United States
٢٠٠٨ Harald zur Hausen Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"[٩٩]
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"[٩٩]
Luc Montagnier France
٢٠٠٩ Elizabeth H. Blackburn United States
Australia
"for the discovery of how کرۆمۆسۆمs are protected by telomeres and the ئەنزیم telomerase"[١٠٠]
Carol W. Greider United States
Jack W. Szostak United States
Poland
٢٠١٠ Sir Robert G. Edwards United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization"[١٠١]
٢٠١١
Bruce A. Beutler United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"[١٠٢]
Jules A. Hoffmann France
Ralph M. Steinman Canada
United States
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[١٠٢]
(awarded posthumously)[١٠٣][١٠٤]
٢٠١٢ Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[١٠٥]
Shinya Yamanaka Shinya Yamanaka Japan
٢٠١٣ James E. Rothman United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating ڤێزیکل traffic, a major transport system in our خانە"[١٠٦]
Randy W. Schekman United States
Thomas C. Südhof United States
٢٠١٤ John O'Keefe  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان
 شانشینی یەکگرتوو
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain" [١٠٧]
May-Britt Moser  نەرویژ
Edvard I. Moser  نەرویژ
٢٠١٥ William C. Campbell  ئیرلەند
 ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" [١٠٨]
Satoshi Ōmura  ژاپۆن
Tu Youyou  چین "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria" [١٠٨]
٢٠١٦ Yoshinori Ohsumi  ژاپۆن "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy" [١٠٩]
٢٠١٧ Jeffrey C. Hall  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" [١١٠]
Michael Rosbash  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان
Michael W. Young  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان
٢٠١٨ James P. Allison  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation" [١١١]
Tasuku Honjo  ژاپۆن
٢٠١٩ William Kaelin Jr.  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان "for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability" [١١٢]
Peter J. Ratcliffe  شانشینی یەکگرتوو
Gregg L. Semenza  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان
٢٠٢٠ Harvey J. Alter  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان "for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus" [١١٣]
Michael Houghton  شانشینی یەکگرتوو
Charles M. Rice  ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکان

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سەرچاوەکان[دەستکاری]

  1. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  7. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  8. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
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