داڕێژە:Cite web

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە
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بەڵگەدارکردنی داڕێژە[ببینە] [دەستکاری بکە] [مێژوو] [پاکسازی]

داڕێژە:AWB standard installation

Citation Style 1 templates
{{Cite arXiv}}arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}}audio and visual
{{Cite AV media notes}}audio and visual liner notes
{{Cite bioRxiv}}bioRxiv preprints
{{Cite book}}books
{{Cite citeseerx}}scientific and academic papers
{{Cite conference}}conference papers
{{Cite encyclopedia}}edited collections
{{Cite episode}}radio or television episodes
{{Cite interview}}interviews
{{Cite journal}}academic journals and papers
{{Cite magazine}}magazines, periodicals
{{Cite mailing list}}public mailing lists
{{Cite map}}maps
{{Cite news}}news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}}online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}}podcasts
{{Cite press release}}press releases
{{Cite report}}reports
{{Cite serial}}audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}}signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}}speeches
{{Cite ssrn}}articles with SSRN identifiers
{{Cite techreport}}technical reports
{{Cite thesis}}theses
{{Cite web}}web sources not covered by the above
See also:

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for web sources that are not characterized by another CS1 template.


Usage[دەستکاری]

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.


Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format

For references with author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}

For references without author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |author=<!--Not stated--> |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}
Most commonly used parameters in vertical format
{{cite web
 |url=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |date=
 |website=
 |publisher=
 |access-date=
 |quote=}}
Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite web |url= |url-access= |title= |last= |first= |author= |author-link= |last2= |first2= |author2= |author-link2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |editor-last= |editor-first= |editor= |editor-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editors= |department= |website= |series= |publisher= |agency= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |script-title= |trans-title= |type= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |access-date= |url-status= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote= |ref= |postscript= }}
Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes
{{cite web
 |url=
 |url-access=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |author-link=
 |last2=
 |first2=
 |author-link2=
 |date=
 |year=
 |orig-year=
 |editor-last=
 |editor-first=
 |editor-link=
 |editor2-last=
 |editor2-first=
 |editor2-link=
 |department=
 |website=
 |series=
 |publisher=
 |agency=
 |location=
 |page=
 |pages=
 |at=
 |language=
 |script-title=
 |trans-title=
 |type=
 |format=
 |arxiv=
 |asin=
 |bibcode=
 |doi=
 |doi-broken-date=
 |isbn=
 |issn=
 |jfm=
 |jstor=
 |lccn=
 |mr=
 |oclc=
 |ol=
 |osti=
 |pmc=
 |pmid=
 |rfc=
 |ssrn=
 |zbl=
 |id=
 |access-date=
 |url-status=
 |archive-url=
 |archive-date=
 |via=
 |quote=
 |ref=
 |postscript=}}
 
 
 
 
 
last
 
last
last2
 
 
 
 
 
editor-last
 
editor-last
editor2-last
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
url 
url 
url, archive-date
archive-url
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
required
 
required
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.


Choosing between Template:cite web and Template:cite news[دەستکاری]

Before 2014, editors had to decide whether to use {{cite web}} or {{cite news}} based on their features. In 2014, most of the differences between the two templates were eliminated.

As of داڕێژە:Diff, {{cite web}} and {{cite news}} have the following differences:

  • {{cite news}} can be used for offline (paper) sources whereas {{cite web}} generates a missing URL error when no URL is provided
  • {{cite news}} accepts |issue= and |volume= parameters while {{cite web}} does not (See داڕێژە:Slink; see also {{cite magazine}}).

But given the same set of valid parameters, their output is exactly the same:

cite web: Silverman، Dwight (July 15, 2011). "Microsoft envisions a universal OS, but it might not be called Windows". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. لە ڕێکەوتی May 26, 2015 ھێنراوە. 
cite news: Silverman، Dwight (July 15, 2011). "Microsoft envisions a universal OS, but it might not be called Windows". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. لە ڕێکەوتی May 26, 2015 ھێنراوە. 

Examples[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John (30 April 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John (2005-04-30). "My Favorite Things, Part II". لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John. "My Favorite Things, Part II". لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"My Favorite Things, Part II". لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=https://operations.nfl.com/the-rules/nfl-rules-digest/ |title=NFL Rules Digest |website=NFL Football Operations |publisher=[[National Football League]] |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"NFL Rules Digest". NFL Football Operations. National Football League. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Using "format="[دەستکاری]

When this template detects a link whose URL includes an extension of ".pdf" or ".PDF", typical of PDF files, it automatically displays a PDF icon after the link (regardless of whether the link goes to a PDF file or to an HTML landing page, typical of paysites). It also internally acts as if |format=PDF had been specified, which displays " (PDF)" after the icon. (In this case, an explicit |format=PDF parameter would be redundant, so it is not recommended to add it. Users may remove it. Citation bot, when invoked, will remove it. (ref))

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.indiapost.gov.in/Pdf/Customs/List_of_Psychotropic_Substances.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |publisher=International Narcotics Control Board |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

If the link is to a PDF file that is not automatically recognizable by its extension, this template does not display the PDF icon. You may add the parameter |format=PDF, which displays " (PDF)" after the link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/somePDFdocument.000 |title=Some PDF Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=PDF |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"Some PDF Document" (PDF). Sample Int'l. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

For links to files in other formats, no icon is displayed. For example, for an .odt file, you may add the parameter |format=ODT, which displays " (ODT)" after the link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/someODTdocument.odt |title=Some ODT Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=ODT |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"Some ODT Document" (ODT). Sample Int'l. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Foreign language and translated title[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Honi soit qui mal y pense |last=Joliet |first=François |date=30 April 2005 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ |language=French |trans-title=Shame on those who think evil of it}}
Joliet، François (30 April 2005). "Honi soit qui mal y pense" [Shame on those who think evil of it] (بە زمانی French). لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Using author-link[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |author-link=John Doe |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John (April 30, 2005). "My Favorite Things, Part II". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Multiple authors[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Our Favourite Things |last1=Doe |first1=John |last2=Smith |first2=Peter |last3=Smythe |first3=Jim |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopaedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
Doe، John؛ Smith، Peter؛ Smythe، Jim (30 April 2005). "Our Favourite Things". Encyclopaedia of Things. Open Publishing. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

No author[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |publisher=Open Publishing |date=2005-04-30 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. Open Publishing. 2005-04-30. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

No author, no publisher[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"Index of Sharp Things". Encyclopedia of Things. 30 April 2005. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=April 30, 2005 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠}}
"Index of Sharp Things". April 30, 2005. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ |language=Greek}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF) (بە زمانی Greek). 2005-04-30. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Using "archive-url" and "archive-date" (and optionally "url-status") for webpages that have been archived [دەستکاری]

By default, if "archive-url" is used, |url-status=dead and the main link is to the archive:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050907150136/http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |archive-date=2005-09-07}}
"List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). 2005-04-30. لە ڕەسەن (PDF)ەوە ئەرشیڤ کراوە لە 2005-09-07. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 
With |url-status=live, the main link is to the original:
  • {{cite web |url=http://joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi?archive=currnews&story=20060405-01shore.htm |title=Interview with Maggie Downs |date=March 31, 2006 |publisher=The Desert Sun |url-status=live |archive-url=http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:JAxf4v-pQmgJ:joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi%3Farchive%3Dcurrnews%26story%3D20060405-01shore.htm |archive-date=April 26, 2006}}
"Interview with Maggie Downs". The Desert Sun. March 31, 2006. لە ڕەسەنەوە ئەرشیڤ کراوە لە April 26, 2006. 
With |url-status=unfit or usurped, the original is not linked at all:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html |title=London, United Kingdom Forecast: Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport) |publisher=The Weather Underground |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ |url-status=unfit |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/5yo0HaAk7 |archive-date=19 May 2011}}
"London, United Kingdom Forecast: Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)". The Weather Underground. لە ڕەسەنەوە ئەرشیڤ کراوە لە 19 May 2011. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. 

Using quote[دەستکاری]

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/c.html |title=Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea |website=WebExhibits |date=2008 |access-date=١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ |quote=...&nbsp;Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins&nbsp;...'}}
"Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea". WebExhibits. 2008. لە ڕێکەوتی ١٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠٢٠ ھێنراوە. ... Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins ...' 

Parameters[دەستکاری]

Syntax[دەستکاری]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.). This can be an issue when the last field uses an abbreviation or initial that ends with a period, as then two periods will display (..). The only solution is to not include the last period in the value for the set of fields.


COinS[دەستکاری]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is generally discouraged as many of these templates will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters:

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publicationplace=, |publication-place=
  • |date=, |year=, |publicationdate=, |publication-date=
  • |series=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapterurl=, |chapter-url=, |contributionurl=, |contribution-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |Author#=, |authors#=, |author#-last=, |author-last#=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • any of the identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)


What's new[دەستکاری]

What's new or changed recently
Parameter New or changed param
|script-work= New. Name of the |work= in its original script (Chinese, Cyrillic, Devanagari, etc.) if not a Latin script.
|trans-work= New. Name of the |work= in English, if the original is in another language.
|url-status= New. Replaces dead-url; list of values has changed. Interacts with archive-url. See url-status.

Deprecated[دەستکاری]

The following parameters are deprecated and will no longer work. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • access-date · accessday · accessdaymonth · accessed · accessmonth · accessmonthday · accessyear: Use accessdate to include the full date of access.
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.


Description[دەستکاری]

Authors[دەستکاری]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last9, first9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through author9.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9. Aliases: author1-link through author9-link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title[دەستکاری]

داڕێژە:Citation Style documentation/web

  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release.


  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.

Date[دەستکاری]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[١] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more]. Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: Name of the month or season of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Do not wikilink.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.


Website[دەستکاری]

داڕێژە:Citation Style documentation/journal

Publisher[دەستکاری]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. Not normally included for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Displays after title.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

داڕێژە:Citation Style documentation/agency

Series[دەستکاری]

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.


In-source locations[دەستکاری]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content. Displays preceded with p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded with pp. unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.


URL[دەستکاری]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[١] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[١] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ ی ا Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.


Anchor[دەستکاری]


Identifiers[دەستکاری]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier.


Quote[دەستکاری]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.


Editors[دەستکاری]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."


Laysummary[دەستکاری]

  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.


Display options[دەستکاری]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To control the displayed number of author names, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, the only the first eight cited authors are displayed; subsequent authors beyond eight are represented in the published citation by "et al." If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

Subscription or registration required[دەستکاری]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation. Nota bene: access icons do not display correctly for editors who use Modern skin.

Four access levels can be used:

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters[دەستکاری]

Sources linked by |url=, |chapter-url=, |entry-url=, |article-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read. When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.

url-holding and access-indicator parameters
url access allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |chapter-url-access=dagger
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=

dagger|contribution-url-access= not currently defined; use its alias |chapter-url-access=

Access indicator for named identifiers[دەستکاری]

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
identifier access allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=dagger
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named-identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=
Ambiguous access parameters[دەستکاری]

The parameters |registration=yes and |subscription=yes can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use |url-access=registration and |url-access=subscription instead, when the restriction applies to |url=. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: (deprecated) For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); yields to subscription if both are set. Use the appropriate access-indicator parameter
  • subscription: (deprecated) For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set. Use the appropriate access-indicator parameter

Setting |registration= or |subscription= to any value other than y, yes, or true will generate an error message.

TemplateData[دەستکاری]

ئەمە بەڵگەنامەی دراوەی داڕێژەیە بۆ ئەم داڕێژە کە لەلایەن دەستکاریکەری دیداری و ئامرازەکانی تر بەکارھاتووە. بڕوانە ڕاپۆرتی ھەڵەی مانگانە بۆ ئەم داڕێژە.

دراوەی داڕێژە بۆ Cite web

Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.

پارامەترەکانی داڕێژە

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

پارامەتروەسفجۆرڕەوش
Last namelast last1 author author1 author1-last author-last surname1 author-last1 subject1 surname author-last subject

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

هێڵپێشنیارکراوە
First namefirst given author-first first1 given1 author-first1 author1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

هێڵپێشنیارکراوە
Author linkauthorlink author-link subjectlink subject-link authorlink1 author-link1 author1-link subjectlink1 author1link subject-link1 subject1-link subject1link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 2last2 author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 2authorlink2 author2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 3last3 author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 3authorlink3 author3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 4last4 author4

The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 4authorlink4 author4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 5last5 author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 5authorlink5 author5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 6last6 author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 6authorlink6 author6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 7last7 author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 7authorlink7 author7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 8last8 author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 8authorlink8 author8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Last name 9last9 author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

هێڵدڵخواز
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Author link 9authorlink9 author9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Authors listauthors people host credits

List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

بنچینەیی
,
زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

بنچینەیی
;
زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Display authorsdisplay-authors displayauthors

Number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used. By default, all authors are displayed. Examples: |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation followed by et al. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al.

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Source datedate

Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink

ڕێکەوتپێشنیارکراوە
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; deprecated in favor of 'date', except for the special case of ISO dates with CITEREF in CS2 or Harvard citations

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Original yearorig-year origyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Editor last nameeditor-last editor1-last editor editors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first nameeditor-first editor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor linkeditor-link editor1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 2editor2-link editor2link editorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 3editor3-link editor3link editorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 4editor4-link editor4link editorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 5editor5-link editor5link editorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 6editor6-link editor6link editorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 7editor7-link editor7link editorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 8editor8-link editor8link editorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

هێڵدڵخواز
Editor link 9editor9-link editor9link editorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

پەڕەدڵخواز
Othersothers

Used to record other (non-author) contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'. Only one ''others'' parameter is allowed: e.g., 'Illustrated by Jane Doe; Translated by John Smith'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Titletitle

The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of your web browser. Not the name of the website.

زنجیرەنووسەپێویستە
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Translated titletrans-title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
URLurl URL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the protocol relative scheme "//..."

نموونە
https://www.metacritic.com//...
زنجیرەنووسەپێویستە
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
URL statusurl-status

If set to 'live', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live. Set to "dead" or 'usurped' for broken links. Entering 'unfit' or 'usurped' makes the original link not appear at all.

بنچینەیی
'dead' if an Archive URL is entered
نموونە
'dead' or 'live'
بەھای خۆگەڕ
live
زنجیرەنووسەپێشنیارکراوە
Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'

زنجیرەنووسەپێشنیارکراوە
Archive datearchive-date archivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

ڕێکەوتپێشنیارکراوە
Archive formatarchive-format

Format of the archived copy; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

ڕێکەوتپێشنیارکراوە
Name of the websitewebsite work

Title (name) of the website (or its short URL if no plain-language title is discernible); may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' is redundant in many cases.

نموونە
Rotten Tomatoes
زنجیرەنووسەپێشنیارکراوە
Series identifierseries

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; may be wikilinked. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' (a.k.a. 'work') is redundant in many cases.

نموونە
"CBS Interactive", which owns "Metacritic.com"
زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Languagelanguage lang

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name or one of the standard MediaWiki language codes; do not use icons or templates; separate multiple languages with commas (with no 'and' before the last one)

نموونە
de, fr, es
زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Published viavia

Name of the entity hosting the original copy of the work, if different from the publisher. This entity is committed not to alter the work. GitHub, SourceForge, CodePlex, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion and Netflix are examples of service dedicated to acting on behalf of the publisher, but Archive.org, Wikimedia Commons and grc.com have done this on certain occasions.

نموونە
"GitHub", which hosts "Visual Studio Code" on behalf of "Microsoft"
زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

زنجیرەنووسەدڵخواز
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

هێڵدڵخواز
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

هێڵدڵخواز
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

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DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

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ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

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ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen

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jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

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JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

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LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

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MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

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OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

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OLol

Open Library identifier

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OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

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PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

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PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

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RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

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SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

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Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

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idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

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Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; must include terminating punctuation

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Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv template

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Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined

بنچینەیی
.
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Subscription requiredsubscription

Use 'url-access' instead

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Registration requiredregistration

Use 'url-access' instead

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Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

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.
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Lay URLlayurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

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Lay sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

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Lay datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

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Editionedition

Specify the edition or revision of the source, when applicable. For example: '2nd' or '5.1'. What you supply here is suffixed by ' ed.'

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Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

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DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

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HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

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Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

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OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

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OSTI access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

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See also[دەستکاری]

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.