پێرستی وەرگرانی خەڵاتی نۆبێل لە فیزیۆلۆژیا یان پزیشکی

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خەڵاتی نۆبێل لە فیزیۆلۆژیا یان پزیشکی (بە ئینگلیزی: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine) یەکێکە لە زنجیرە خەڵاتی نۆبێل کە دەبەخشرێت بە کەسانی شایستە لە بواری پزیشکی یان فیزیۆلۆژیادا بۆ دۆزینەوە و کارەکانیان لەم بوارانەدا.

وەرگرەکان[دەستکاری]

١٩٠١-١٩٥٠[دەستکاری]

ساڵ وەرگر[A] وڵات[B] ھۆکار[C]
١٩٠١ EmilVonBehring.jpg Emil Adolf von Behring ئاڵمانیا "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[١]
١٩٠٢ Ronald Ross.jpg Sir Ronald Ross شانشینی یەکگرتوو "for his work on مالاریا, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[٢]
١٩٠٣ Niels ryberg.jpg Niels Ryberg Finsen دانمارک
(دوورگەکانی فارۆ)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[٣]
١٩٠٤ Ivan Pavlov nobel.jpg Ivan Petrovich Pavlov ڕووسیا "in recognition of his work on the physiology of ھەرسکردن, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[٤]
١٩٠٥ RobertKoch cropped.jpg Robert Koch ئاڵمانیا "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to دەردەباریکە"[٥]
١٩٠٦ Camillo Golgi nobel.jpg Camillo Golgi ئیتالیا "in recognition of their work on the structure of the کۆئەندامی دەمار"[٦]
Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal ئیسپانیا
١٩٠٧ Charles Laveran nobel.jpg Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran فەڕەنسا "in recognition of his work on the role played by زیندەوەرە سەرەتاییەکان in causing diseases"[٧]
١٩٠٨ Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russia "in recognition of their work on کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[٨]
[[پەڕگە:|75px]] Paul Ehrlich Germany
١٩٠٩ Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg Emil Theodor Kocher سویس "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the تیرۆئید"[٩]
١٩١٠ Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg Albrecht Kossel Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on پرۆتینs, including the nucleic substances"[١٠]
١٩١١ Allvar Gullstrand.jpg Allvar Gullstrand سوید "for his work on the dioptrics of the چاوی مرۆڤ"[١١]
١٩١٢ Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel France "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of خوێنبۆریs and organs"[١٢]
١٩١٣ Charles Robert Richet nobel.jpg Charles Richet France "[for] his work on anaphylaxis"[١٣]
١٩١٤ Robert Barany.jpg Robert Bárány نەمسا "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[١٤]
١٩١٥ Not awarded
١٩١٦
١٩١٧
١٩١٨
١٩١٩ Jules Bordet nobel.jpg Jules Bordet بەلجیکا "for his discoveries relating to کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[١٥]
١٩٢٠ August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg Schack August Steenberg Krogh دانمارک "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[١٦]
١٩٢١ Not awarded
١٩٢٢ Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the ماسوولکە"[١٧]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof.jpg Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of ئۆکسجین and the مێتابۆلیزم of lactic acid in the muscle"[١٧]
١٩٢٣ Fredrick banting.jpg Frederick Grant Banting کەنەدا "for the discovery of ئەنسۆلین"[١٨]
J.J.R. Macleod ca. 1928.png John James Rickard Macleod Canada
١٩٢٤ Willem Einthoven.jpg Willem Einthoven ھۆلەند "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[١٩]
١٩٢٥ Not awarded
١٩٢٦ J Fibiger.jpg Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger دانمارک "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[٢٠]
١٩٢٧ Julius Wagner-Jauregg.jpg Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of مالاریا inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[٢١]
١٩٢٨ Jules Nicole.jpg Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France "for his work on typhus"[٢٢]
١٩٢٩ Christiaan Eijkman.jpg Christiaan Eijkman The Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic ڤیتامین"[٢٣]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating ڤیتامینs"[٢٣]
١٩٣٠ Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner نەمسا "for his discovery of human blood groups"[٢٤]
١٩٣١ Otto Warburg.jpg Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[٢٥]
١٩٣٢ Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg Sir Charles Scott Sherrington United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of دەمارەخانەs"[٢٦]
Edgar Douglas Adrian nobel.jpg Edgar Douglas Adrian United Kingdom
١٩٣٣ Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg Thomas Hunt Morgan ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکانی ئەمریکا "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the کرۆمۆسۆم in heredity"[٢٧]
١٩٣٤ George Whipple nobel.jpg George Hoyt Whipple United States "for their discoveries concerning جەرگ therapy in cases of anaemia"[٢٨]
George Minot nobel.jpg George Richards Minot United States
William P Murphy.jpg William Parry Murphy United States
١٩٣٥ Hans Spemann nobel.jpg Hans Spemann Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[٢٩]
١٩٣٦ Henry Dale nobel.jpg Sir Henry Hallett Dale United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[٣٠]
Otto Loewi nobel.jpg Otto Loewi Austria
١٩٣٧ Albert Szent-Györgyi cropped.jpg Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt مەجارستان "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[٣١]
١٩٣٨ Corneille Heymans nobel.jpg Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[٣٢]
١٩٣٩ Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg Gerhard Domagk Germany "for the discovery of the دژە زیندەیی effects of prontosil"[٣٣]
١٩٤٠ Not awarded
١٩٤١
١٩٤٢
١٩٤٣ Henrik Dam nobel.jpg Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[٣٤]
Edward A Doisy.jpg Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[٣٤]
١٩٤٤ Joseph Erlanger nobel.jpg Joseph Erlanger United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[٣٥]
Herbert Spencer Gasser nobel.jpg Herbert Spencer Gasser United States
١٩٤٥ Alexander Fleming 1945.jpg Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom "for the discovery of پێنیسیلین and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[٣٦]
Ernst Boris Chain 1945.jpg Sir Ernst Boris Chain United Kingdom
Howard Walter Florey 1945.jpg Howard Walter Florey ئۆسترالیا
١٩٤٦ 75px Hermann Joseph Muller ویلایەتە یەکگرتووەکانی ئەمریکا "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of تیشکی ئێکس irradiation"[٣٧]
١٩٤٧ Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg Carl Ferdinand Cori United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[٣٨]
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States
Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Alberto Houssay ئارجەنتین "for his discovery of the part played by the ھۆرمۆن of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of گلووکۆز"[٣٨]
١٩٤٨ Paul Hermann Müller nobel.jpg Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[٣٩]
١٩٤٩ Walter Hess.jpg Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[٤٠]
Moniz.jpg António Caetano Egas Moniz پورتوگال "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[٤٠]
١٩٥٠ Philip Showalter Hench.jpg Philip Showalter Hench United States "for their discoveries relating to the ھۆرمۆنs of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[٤١]
75px Edward Calvin Kendall United States
Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg Tadeusz Reichstein Switzerland
Poland

١٩٥١-٢٠٠٠[دەستکاری]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
١٩٥١ Max Theiler nobel.jpg Max Theiler ئەفریقای باشوور "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[٤٢]
١٩٥٢ Selman Waksman NYWTScrop.jpg Selman Abraham Waksman United States "for his discovery of سترێپتۆمایسین, the first دژە زیندەیی effective against دەردەباریکە"[٤٣]
١٩٥٣ Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg Sir ھانس ئەدۆڵف کریبس United Kingdom "for his discovery of the سوڕی کریبس"[٤٤]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg Fritz Albert Lipmann United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[٤٤]
١٩٥٤ 75px John Franklin Enders United States "for their discovery of the ability of شەپڵەی منداڵان ڤایرووسes to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[٤٥]
Frederick Chapman Robbins nobel.jpg Frederick Chapman Robbins United States
75px Thomas Huckle Weller United States
١٩٥٥ Hugo Theorell nobel.jpg Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[٤٦]
١٩٥٦ André Frédéric Cournand United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the کۆئەندامی سووڕان"[٤٧]
Werner Forssmann nobel.jpg Werner Forssmann ئاڵمانیای ڕۆژاوا
75px Dickinson W. Richards United States
١٩٥٧ Daniel Bovet nobel.jpg Daniel Bovet ئیتالیا "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[٤٨]
١٩٥٨ 75px George Wells Beadle United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[٤٩]
75px Edward Lawrie Tatum United States
Joshua Lederberg crop.jpg Joshua Lederberg United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of بەکتریا"[٤٩]
١٩٥٩ Arthur Kornberg.jpg Arthur Kornberg United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ئار ئێن ئەی and دی ئێن ئەی"[٥٠]
75px Severo Ochoa Spain
United States
١٩٦٠ Frank Macfarlane Burnet nobel.jpg Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[٥١]
Peter Brian Medawar.jpg Sir Peter Brian Medawar Brazil
United Kingdom
١٩٦١ Georg von Békésy nobel.jpg Georg von Békésy United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[٥٢]
١٩٦٢ Francis Crick crop.jpg Francis Harry Compton Crick United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[٥٣]
JamesWatson.png James Dewey Watson United States
Maurice Wilkins nobel.jpg Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins نیوزیلاند
United Kingdom
١٩٦٣ Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the دەمار cell membrane"[٥٤]
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin nobel.jpg Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin United Kingdom
Andrew Fielding Huxley nobel.jpg Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley United Kingdom
١٩٦٤ Konrad Bloch.JPG Konrad Bloch United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the کۆلیستڕۆڵ and ترشەکانی چەوری مێتابۆلیزم"[٥٥]
Feodor Lynen Federal Republic of Germany
١٩٦٥ François Jacob nobel.jpg François Jacob France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[٥٦]
André Lwoff nobel.jpg André Lwoff France
Jacques Monod nobel.jpg Jacques Monod France
١٩٦٦ Peyton Rous United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing ڤایرووسes"[٥٧]
75px Charles Brenton Huggins United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[٥٧]
١٩٦٧ Ragnar Granit2.jpg Ragnar Granit Finland/Sweden "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the چاوی مرۆڤ"[٥٨]
Haldan Keffer Hartline nobel.jpg Haldan Keffer Hartline United States
George Wald nobel.jpg George Wald United States
١٩٦٨ 75px Robert W. Holley United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[٥٩]
75px Har Gobind Khorana India
Marshall Nirenberg 2003.jpg Marshall W. Nirenberg United States
١٩٦٩ Max Delbruck.jpg Max Delbrück United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of ڤایرووسes"[٦٠]
Alfred Hershey.jpg Alfred D. Hershey United States
Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpg Salvador E. Luria Italy
United States
١٩٧٠ Axelrod01.jpg Julius Axelrod United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[٦١]
Ulf von Euler Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz United Kingdom
١٩٧١ Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of ھۆرمۆنs"[٦٢]
١٩٧٢ Gerald M. Edelman United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[٦٣]
Rodney R. Porter United Kingdom
١٩٧٣ 75px Karl von Frisch Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[٦٤]
Konrad Lorenz.JPG Konrad Lorenz Austria
Nikolaas Tinbergen 1978.jpg Nikolaas Tinbergen United Kingdom
١٩٧٤ Albert Claude بەلجیکا "for their discoveries concerning the ئەندامۆچکە"[٦٥]
Christian de Duve Belgium
George E. Palade Romania
١٩٧٥ DavidBaltimore2008.JPG David Baltimore United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between ڤایرووسes and the genetic material of the cell"[٦٦]
Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg Renato Dulbecco Italy
United States
Howard Martin Temin United States
١٩٧٦ Baruch Samuel Blumberg by Tom Trower (NASA).jpg Baruch S. Blumberg United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[٦٧]
D. Carleton Gajdusek United States
١٩٧٧ Roger Guillemin United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the مێشک"[٦٨]
Andrew Schally portrait.jpg Andrew V. Schally United States
Rosalyn Yalow.jpg Rosalyn Yalow United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[٦٨]
١٩٧٨ Werner Arber 2008.jpg Werner Arber Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[٦٩]
Daniel Nathans United States
Hamilton Smith.jpg Hamilton O. Smith United States
١٩٧٩ Allan M. Cormack South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography"[٧٠]
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield United Kingdom
١٩٨٠ Baruj Benacerraf Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate کۆئەندامی بەرگری"[٧١]
Jean Dausset 1968.jpg Jean Dausset France
George D. Snell United States
١٩٨١ Roger W. Sperry United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[٧٢]
David H. Hubel United States "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[٧٢]
Torsten Wiesel-7Nov2006.jpg Torsten N. Wiesel Sweden
١٩٨٢ Sune Bergström 3.jpg Sune K. Bergström Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[٧٣]
Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden
Sir John R. Vane United Kingdom
١٩٨٣ Barbara McClintock United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[٧٤]
١٩٨٤ Niels Kaj Jerne 1950 crop.jpg Niels K. Jerne Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the کۆئەندامی بەرگری and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[٧٥]
Georges J.F. Köhler Federal Republic of Germany
Milstein lnp.jpg César Milstein ئارجەنتین
United Kingdom
١٩٨٥ Mike Brown 2003.jpg Michael S. Brown United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of کۆلیستڕۆڵ مێتابۆلیزم"[٧٦]
Joe Goldstein.JPG Joseph L. Goldstein United States
١٩٨٦ Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg Stanley Cohen United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[٧٧]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpg Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy
United States
١٩٨٧ Susumu Tonegawa ژاپۆن "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[٧٨]
١٩٨٨ Sir James W. Black United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[٧٩]
Nci-vol-8236-300 Gertrude Elion.jpg Gertrude B. Elion United States
George H. Hitchings United States
١٩٨٩ Nci-vol-8172-300 j michael bishop.jpg J. Michael Bishop United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[٨٠]
HEVarmus.jpg Harold E. Varmus United States
١٩٩٠ Joseph E. Murray United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[٨١]
E. Donnall Thomas United States
١٩٩١ Erwin neher 2007 lindau.jpg Erwin Neher Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[٨٢]
Sakmann.jpg Bert Sakmann Federal Republic of Germany
١٩٩٢ Edmond H. Fischer Switzerland
United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible پرۆتین phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[٨٣]
Edwin G. Krebs United States
١٩٩٣ Roberts, Richard John (1943).jpg Sir Richard J. Roberts United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes"[٨٤]
Phillip A Sharp NIH.jpg Phillip A. Sharp United States
١٩٩٤ Alfred G. Gilman United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[٨٥]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpg Martin Rodbell United States
١٩٩٥ Edward B. Lewis United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[٨٦]
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard mg 4383.jpg Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Federal Republic of Germany
Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg Eric F. Wieschaus United States
١٩٩٦ Peter C. Doherty Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[٨٧]
Rolf Zinkernagel Erudite Conclave medical college trivandrum.jpg Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland
١٩٩٧ Prusiner 1.JPG Stanley B. Prusiner United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[٨٨]
١٩٩٨ Drfurchgott.jpg Robert F. Furchgott United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[٨٩]
Loius Ignarro.jpg Louis J. Ignarro United States
Ferid Murad.jpg Ferid Murad United States
١٩٩٩ Gunter Blobel 2008 1.JPG Günter Blobel United States "for the discovery that پرۆتینs have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[٩٠]
٢٠٠٠ Arvid Carlsson 2011a.jpg Arvid Carlsson Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the کۆئەندامی دەمار"[٩١]
Paul Greengard.jpg Paul Greengard United States
Eric Richard Kandel.jpg Eric R. Kandel United States

٢٠٠١-ئێستا[دەستکاری]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
٢٠٠١ Leland H. Hartwell United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[٩٢]
Tim hunt.jpg Sir Tim Hunt United Kingdom
Plos nurse.jpg Sir Paul M. Nurse United Kingdom
٢٠٠٢ Sydney Brenner South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[٩٣]
H. Robert Horvitz United States
Sulston, John Edward (1942).jpg Sir John E. Sulston United Kingdom
٢٠٠٣ PaulLauterbur.jpg Paul Lauterbur United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[٩٤]
Peter Mansfield Leipzig.jpg Sir Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
٢٠٠٤ Richard Axel.jpg Richard Axel United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[٩٥]
LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg Linda B. Buck United States
٢٠٠٥ Marshall 2008.JPG Barry J. Marshall Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[٩٦]
Robin Warren.jpg J. Robin Warren Australia
٢٠٠٦ Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg Andrew Z. Fire United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[٩٧]
Craig C. Mello United States
٢٠٠٧ Mario Capecchi UTHSCSA.JPG Mario R. Capecchi United States "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[٩٨]
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom
Oliver-smithies.jpg Oliver Smithies United States
٢٠٠٨ Harald zur Hausen-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-6.jpg Harald zur Hausen Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"[٩٩]
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-1.jpg Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"[٩٩]
LucMontagnier1995 065.jpg Luc Montagnier France
٢٠٠٩ Elizabeth Blackburn 2009-01.JPG Elizabeth H. Blackburn United States
Australia
"for the discovery of how کرۆمۆسۆمs are protected by telomeres and the ئەنزیم telomerase"[١٠٠]
Carol Greider 2009-01.JPG Carol W. Greider United States
JSzostak.jpg Jack W. Szostak United States
Poland
٢٠١٠ Sir Robert G. Edwards United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization"[١٠١]
٢٠١١
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7512.jpg Bruce A. Beutler United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"[١٠٢]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7584.jpg Jules A. Hoffmann France
Ralph M. Steinman Canada
United States
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[١٠٢]
(awarded posthumously)[١٠٣][١٠٤]
٢٠١٢ John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[١٠٥]
Shinya Yamanaka Shinya Yamanaka Japan
٢٠١٣ James E. Rothman United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating ڤێزیکل traffic, a major transport system in our خانە"[١٠٦]
Randy Schekman 8 February 2012.jpg Randy W. Schekman United States
Thomas C. Südhof United States

پەراوێزەکان[دەستکاری]

  1. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  7. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  8. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  11. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  17. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  20. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  23. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  27. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  32. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  34. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  38. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  40. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  42. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  43. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  44. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  46. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  49. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  51. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  52. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  54. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  56. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  57. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  58. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  59. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  60. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  61. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  62. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  63. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  64. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  66. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  68. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  70. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  72. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  73. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  74. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  75. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  76. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  77. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  78. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  79. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  80. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  81. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  82. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  83. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  84. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  85. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  86. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  87. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  88. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  89. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  90. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  91. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  92. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  93. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  94. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  95. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  96. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  97. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-٠٧-٢٨ ھێنراوە. 
  98. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٧-١٠-٠٨ ھێنراوە. 
  99. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٨-١٠-٠٦ ھێنراوە. 
  100. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠٠٩-١٠-٠٥ ھێنراوە. 
  101. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠١٠-١٠-٠٤ ھێنراوە. 
  102. ^ ی ا "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠١١-١٠-٠٣ ھێنراوە. 
  103. ^ "Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate". The Nobel Foundation. 3 October 2011. لە ڕێکەوتی ٠٦ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠١٣ ھێنراوە. 
  104. ^ Sample, Ian (٢٠١١-١٠-٠٣). "Nobel prize to be awarded to dead scientist". The Guardian. London. لە ڕێکەوتی October 10, 2011 ھێنراوە. The Nobel foundation concluded that the award should stand, saying: "The Nobel prize to Ralph Steinman was made in good faith, based on the assumption that the Nobel laureate was alive." 
  105. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠١٢-١٠-٠٨ ھێنراوە. 
  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013". Nobel Foundation. لە ڕێکەوتی ٢٠١٣-١٠-٠٧ ھێنراوە. 

سەرچاوەکان[دەستکاری]