ناکۆکیی تورکیا و کورد (١٩٧٨ - ئێستا)

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە
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شەڕی پەکەکە-تورکیا
بەشێک لە یاخیبووانی کورد
PKK-Conflict-de.png
نەخشەی جەنگی نێوان پەکەکە و تورکیا
ڕێکەوت c. ٢٧ی تشرینی دووەمی ١٩٧٨–تا ئێستا
(٤٢ ساڵ، و ١٠ مانگ، و ١ ڕۆژ)
شوێن ڕۆژھەڵاتی تورکیا
هەرێمی کوردستان
دۆخ بەردەوامە:
شەڕ لە نێوان
تورکیا تورکیا

ھێزەکانی دیکە:

پارتی کرێکارانی کوردستان (پەکەکە)

YDG-H:

HBDH



PJAK[١٣]داڕێژە:Dubious


پەڕگە:Tak Flag.jpg ھەڵۆکانی ئازادی کوردستان

سەرکردەکان و ڕێبەران
Current commanders

تورکیا ڕەجەب تەیب ئەردۆغان
تورکیا بیناڵی یەڵدرم
تورکیا ھولوسی ئاکار


Current commanders
Murat Karayılan

Bahoz Erdal
Cemil Bayık
Mustafa Karasu
Duran Kalkan
tr (Ali Haydar Kaytan)
Zübeyir Aydar
Haji Ahmadi[١٤]

شەڕکەر
ھێزە جەکدارەکانی تورکیا: 639,551:[١٥]
Gendarmerie: 148,700[١٦]
Police: 225,000
Village Guards: 60,000[١٧]
تورکیا Total: 948,550
(not all directly involved in the conflict)
پارتی کرێکارانی کوردستان: 4,000–32,800[١٨][١٩]

PJAK: 1,000[٢٠]–3,000[٢١]
TAK: A few dozen[٢٢]
Total: ≈5,000–32,800[١٩]

زیانەکان و دۆڕانەکان
5,347 soldiers, 283 police officers and 1,466 village guards killed, 95 captured (24 currently held)[٢٣][٢٤]
Total: 7,230 killed
(Turkish claim)[٢٥][٢٦]
Total: 27,374–34,704 killed, 1,480 captured
(Turkish claim)[٢٦][٢٧][٢٨]
Total killed: 40,000–45,000[٢٩][٣٠]

Civilian Casualties:
6,741 killed and 14,257 wounded (Turkish claim)[٢٦]
18,000–20,000 Kurds executed and 2,400–4,000+ villages destroyed by the Turkish government (Independent human rights reports and other estimates)[٣١][٣٢][٣٣][٣٤]
17,000 missing[٣٥][٣٦]
3,000,000+ displaced[٣٧]

Turkish Hezbollah also known as Kurdish Hezbollah or just Hizbullah in Turkey, is a mainly Sunni Islamist militant organization, active against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Government of Turkey.[٣٨][٣٩][٤٠][٤١][٤٢]

داڕێژە:Campaignbox Kurdish–Turkish conflictداڕێژە:Campaignbox Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey

جەنگی نێوان پەکەکە (پارتی کرێکارانی کوردستان - تورکیا) ناکۆکی و جەنگە کە لە ساڵی ١٩٨٤ەوە لەنێوانیان دەستی پێکردووە.

سەرچاوەکان[دەستکاری]

  1. ^ "Armenian animosity rekindled through PKK terror". Al-Monitor. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on ١١ی ئازاری ٢٠١٦. Retrieved 11 March 2016. Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  2. ^ "Ocalan: Greeks supplied Kurdish rebels". BBC News. 2 June 1999. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Turkey says Greece supports PKK". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 July 1999. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  4. ^ ئ ا Faucompret, Erik; Konings, Jozef (2008). Turkish Accession to the EU: Satisfying the Copenhagen Criteria. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-203-92896-7. The Turkish establishment considered the Kurds' demand for the recognition of their identity a threat to the territorial integrity of the state, the more so because the PKK was supported by countries hostile to Turkey: Soviet Union, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and especially Syria. Syria hosted the organization and its leader for twenty years, and it provided training facilities in the Beka'a Valley of Syrian-controlled northern Lebanon.
  5. ^ Shapir, Yiftah (1998). The Middle East Military Balance, 1996. Jerusalem, Israel: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel Aviv University. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-231-10892-8. The PKK was originally established as a Marxist party, with ties to the Soviet Union
  6. ^ "Syria and Iran 'backing Kurdish terrorist group', says Turkey". The Telegraph. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
  7. ^ Bal, İdris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Boca Raton, Fl.: BrownWalker Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-58112-423-1. With the explicit supports of some Arab countries for the PKK such as Syria...
  8. ^ Mannes, Aaron (2004). Profiles In Terror: The Guide To Middle East Terrorist Organizations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7425-3525-1. PKK has had substantial operations in northern Iraq, with the support of Iran and Syria.
  9. ^ "Terrorism Havens: Iraq". Council on Foreign Relations. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on ٢٨ی ئەیلوولی ٢٠١٦. Retrieved ٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠١٦. Saddam has aided...the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (known by its Turkish initials, PKK), a separatist group fighting the Turkish government. Check date values in: |access-date=, |archive-date= (help)
  10. ^ Empty citation (help)
  11. ^ "Are the PKK and Cairo new allies?". Rudaw. 27 June 2016. Cairo allegedly gave the PKK delegation funds and weapons after the second meeting, the report adds.
  12. ^ "III. International Sources of Support". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  13. ^ "PJAK attacks along Iran borders decline". PressTV. Archived from the original on ٢ی نیسانی ٢٠١٥. Retrieved 13 April 2015. Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  14. ^ "PJAK attacks along Iran borders decline". Presstv.com. Archived from the original on ١٦ی حوزەیرانی ٢٠١٢. Retrieved 15 April 2011. Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  15. ^ "NEWS FROM TURKISH ARMED FORCES". Turkish Armed Forces. Archived from the original on ٥ی تشرینی دووەمی ٢٠١٥. Retrieved November 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |archivedate= (help)
  16. ^ "Turkey's Paramilitary Forces" (PDF). Orbat. 25 July 2006. p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on ٢٧ی ئازاری ٢٠٠٩. Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  17. ^ "Turkey's 'village guards' tired of conflict". My Sinchew. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on ٢١ی نیسانی ٢٠١٠. Retrieved 29 August 2010. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  18. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری fas نەدراوە
  19. ^ ئ ا "The PKK in Numbers". Sabah News Agency. 28 December 2015. Archived from the original on ٩ی تەممووزی ٢٠١٦. Retrieved ٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠١٦. Check date values in: |access-date=, |archive-date= (help)
  20. ^ ISN Kurdish strike reminder of forgotten war, 26 February 2007
  21. ^ Iran's Kurdish Threat: PJAK Archived ١٣ی کانوونی دووەمی ٢٠١٣, لە Archive.is, 15 June 2006
  22. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری Freedom Falcons نەدراوە
  23. ^ 14 taken (May 1993),[١] Archived ١١ی ئایاری ٢٠١٥, لە وەیبەک مەشین. 8 taken (Oct. 2007),[٢] 23 taken (2011-12),[٣] 8 released (Feb. 2015),[٤] 20 taken/released (June-Sep. 2015),[٥] 20 held (Dec. 2015),[٦] 2 taken (Jan. 2016),[٧] total of 95 reported taken
  24. ^ 20 as of Dec. 2015,[٨] 2 taken Jan. 2016,[٩] total of 22 reported currently held
  25. ^ "How many martyrs did Turkey lost?". Internethaber. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  26. ^ ئ ا ب "Nearly 7,000 civilians killed by PKK in 31 years". Archived from the original on ١١ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠١٦. Retrieved ٣ی تشرینی یەکەمی ٢٠١٦. Check date values in: |access-date=, |archive-date= (help)
  27. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری Turkish casualties نەدراوە
  28. ^ "Turkey counts cost of conflict as Kurdish militant battle rages on". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  29. ^ Turkish forces kill 32 Kurdish militants in bloody weekend as conflict escalates
  30. ^ "PKK declares end to unilateral truce in Turkey". AFP. 5 November 2015.
  31. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری executions نەدراوە
  32. ^ Visweswaran, edited by Kamala (2013). Everyday occupations experiencing militarism in South Asia and the Middle East (1st ed. ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-8122-0783-1.
  33. ^ Romano, David (2005). The Kurdish nationalist movement: opportunity, mobilization and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-521-68426-9.
  34. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری wounded نەدراوە
  35. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری LA Times نەدراوە
  36. ^ "Turkey sees Kurdish threat in Syria unrest". Asia Times. Archived from the original on ٣ی ئازاری ٢٠١٦. Retrieved 26 October 2014. Check date values in: |ڕێکەوتی ئەرشیڤ= (help)
  37. ^ ھەڵەی ژێدەرەکان: تاگی <ref> ھەڵە؛ ھیچ دەقێک بۆ ژێدەری displaced نەدراوە
  38. ^ "Turkish Hezbollah (Hizbullah) / Kurdish Hezbollah". Turkish Weekly. Archived from the original on ٢ی کانوونی دووەمی ٢٠١٥. Retrieved 27 December 2015. Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  39. ^ "The real challenge to secular Turkey". The Economist. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  40. ^ Dogan, Azimet (2008). Characteristics of Turkish Hezbollah: Implications for Policy and Programs. University of Baltimore.
  41. ^ T. Nugent, John. "The Defeat of Turkish Hizballah as a Model for Counter-Terrorism Strategy". the Department of National Security Affairs. Archived from the original on ٢٠ی کانوونی دووەمی ٢٠١٦. Retrieved 27 December 2015. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  42. ^ Jenkins, Gareth (2010). "A New Front in the PKK Insurgency". International Relations and Security Network (ISN). International Relations and Security Network (ISN). Retrieved 27 December 2015.