ویکیپیدیا:گۆکردنی ئینگلیزی

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە
باز بدە بۆ: ڕێدۆزی، گەڕان
Consonants
IPA نموونە
b buy, cab
d die, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge
f phi, caff
ɡ (ˈɡ)[١] guy, cag
h high, ahead
j yes, hallelujah
k chi, sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, ban
ŋ gang, sink, ringer
ŋɡ finger
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[٢]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[٣]
z xi, zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[٤]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[٥]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/,
Hawaii /həˈwaɪʔiː/[٦]
Vowels
IPA Traditional monophthongs R-colored vowels[٧]
æ bat, bad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
ɑː balm, father, bra ɑr bar, mar, party, starring (/ɑːr./)
ɒ bot, pod, John, doll[٨] ɒr moral, forage
ɔː bawd, caught, dawn, ball, straw[٩] ɔr born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
code, boat, goal, bone, go[١٠] ɔər boar, four, more, oral (/oʊr./)[١١]
ʊ good, foot, pull, Sunni ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[١٢]
food, lute, pool, soon, blue
ʌ bud, but, dull, gun[١٣] ʌr hurry, Murray
ɜr bird, myrrh, furry (also /ɝː/)[١٤]
ɛ bed, pet, bell, men ɛr berry, merry
fade, fate, fail, vein, pay ɛər bear, mare, Mary (/eɪr./)
ɪ bid, pit, bill, bin ɪr mirror
bead, peat, feel, mean, sea ɪər beer, mere, serious (/iːr./)
Traditional diphthongs
ride, write, file, fine, pie ɔɪ void, exploit, foil, coin, boy
out, loud, owl, down, how juː cute, hue, pew, dew[١٥]
Reduced vowels
ə Rosa’s, a mission ən button
i happy, serious[١٦] əm rhythm
ɨ, ɪ roses, emission [١٧] əl bottle
ʊ beautiful, curriculum ([jʊ])[١٨] ər perform, mercer (also /ɚ/)[١٤]
ɵ following, omission[١٩]
Stress Syllabification
IPA نموونە IPA نموونە
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[٢٠]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[٢١]
. shellfish /ˈʃel.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈself.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/[٢٢]
ˌ

پەراوێزەکان[دەستکاری]

  1. If the two characters ˈɡ and ˈOpentail g.svg do not match, if the first looks like a ˈγ, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  3. /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  4. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  5. In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.
  6. Most people pronounce the English word Hawaii without the /ʔ/ (glottal stop) that occurs in the Hawaiian word Hawai‘i.
  7. In non-rhotic accents such as RP, /r/ not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. are not always distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are, the long vowels may be transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/.
  8. /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father-bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  10. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  11. /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  12. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  13. This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  14. a b In some articles these are transcribed /ɝː/ and /ɚ/ when not followed by a vowel.
  15. In many dialects, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after "tongue sounds" (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In other dialects, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.داڕێژە:حقيقة
  16. Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  17. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [١], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  18. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [٢].
  19. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989)
  20. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  21. Full vowels after a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  22. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion.

ھەروەھا ببینە[دەستکاری]