داڕێژە:Cite book/doc

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە
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Citation Style 1 templates
{{Cite arXiv}}arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}}audio and visual
{{Cite AV media notes}}audio and visual liner notes
{{Cite bioRxiv}}bioRxiv preprints
{{Cite book}}books
{{Cite citeseerx}}scientific and academic papers
{{Cite conference}}conference papers
{{Cite encyclopedia}}edited collections
{{Cite episode}}radio or television episodes
{{Cite interview}}interviews
{{Cite journal}}academic journals and papers
{{Cite magazine}}magazines, periodicals
{{Cite mailing list}}public mailing lists
{{Cite map}}maps
{{Cite news}}news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}}online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}}podcasts
{{Cite press release}}press releases
{{Cite report}}reports
{{Cite serial}}audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}}signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}}speeches
{{Cite ssrn}}articles with SSRN identifiers
{{Cite techreport}}technical reports
{{Cite thesis}}theses
{{Cite web}}web sources not covered by the above
See also:

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for books.

When citing an article in a periodical, use {{cite journal}} or {{cite magazine}}. For conference papers, use {{cite conference}}. For edited collections, use {{cite encyclopedia}}. For theses, use {{cite thesis}}.

Usage[دەستکاری]

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.


Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format


To cite a book with a credited author
{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |date= |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |isbn=}}
To cite a book with no credited author
{{cite book |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title= |url= |location= |publisher= |page= |date= |isbn=}}
To cite an online book that has been archived
{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |url= |url-status= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archive-url= |archive-date=}}
To cite a book written in a foreign language
{{cite book |last= |first= |date= |title= |trans-title= |url= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn=}}
To cite and quote an archived, two-author, foreign language book re-published as a PDF on an information aggregation service requiring a subscription
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |title= |trans-title= |url= |url-status= |url-access= |format= |language= |location= |publisher= |isbn= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote=}}


Most commonly used parameters in vertical format
{{cite book
 |last=
 |first=
 |author-link=
 |date=
 |title=
 |url=
 |location=
 |publisher=
 |page= <!-- or pages= -->
 |isbn=
}}


Full parameter set in horizontal format

{{cite book |last1= |first1= |author-link1= |last2= |first2= |author-link2= |last3= |first3= |author-link3= |last4= |first4= |author-link4= |last5= |first5= |author-link5= |display-authors= |author-mask1= |author-mask2= |author-mask3= |author-mask4= |author-mask5= |last-author-amp= |translator-last1= |translator-first1= |translator-link1= |translator-last2= |translator-first2= |translator-link2= |display-translators= |translator-mask1= |translator-mask2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |chapter= |script-chapter= |trans-chapter= |chapter-url= |chapter-format= |editor1-last= |editor1-first= |editor1-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editor3-last= |editor3-first= |editor3-link= |editor4-last= |editor4-first= |editor4-link= |editor5-last= |editor5-first= |editor5-link= |display-editors= |title= |script-title= |trans-title= |url= |url-status= |url-access= |format= |type= |series= |language= |volume= |others= |edition= |location= |publisher= |publication-date= |page= |pages= |at= |nopp= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |ismn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archive-url= |archive-date= |access-date= |via= |lay-url= |lay-source= |lay-date= |lay-format= |quote= |name-list-format= |mode= |postscript= |ref=}}

Full parameter set in vertical format
Parameters Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes Vertical list
داڕێژە:Hover title Author's last name or single name author. Don't link.
{{cite book
 |last1                =
 |first1               =
 |author-link1         =
 |last2                =
 |first2               =
 |author-link2         =
 |last3                =
 |first3               =
 |author-link3         =
 |last4                =
 |first4               =
 |author-link4         =
 |last5                =
 |first5               =
 |author-link5         =
 |display-authors      =
 |author-mask1         =
 |author-mask2         =
 |author-mask3         =
 |author-mask4         =
 |author-mask5         =
 |last-author-amp      =
 |translator-last1     =
 |translator-first1    =
 |translator-link1     =
 |translator-last2     =
 |translator-first2    =
 |translator-link2     =
 |display-translators  =
 |translator-mask1     =
 |translator-mask2     =
 |date                 =
 |year                 =
 |orig-year            =
 |chapter              =
 |script-chapter       =
 |trans-chapter        =
 |chapter-url          =
 |chapter-format       =
 |editor1-last         =
 |editor1-first        =
 |editor1-link         =
 |editor2-last         =
 |editor2-first        =
 |editor2-link         =
 |editor3-last         =
 |editor3-first        =
 |editor3-link         =
 |editor4-last         =
 |editor4-first        =
 |editor4-link         =
 |editor5-last         =
 |editor5-first        =
 |editor5-link         =
 |display-editors      =
 |title                =
 |script-title         =
 |trans-title          =
 |url                  =
 |url-status           =
 |url-access           =
 |format               =
 |type                 =
 |series               =
 |language             =
 |volume               =
 |others               =
 |edition              =
 |location             =
 |publisher            =
 |publication-date     =
 |page                 =
 |pages                =
 |at                   =
 |nopp                 =
 |arxiv                =
 |asin                 =
 |bibcode              =
 |doi                  =
 |doi-broken-date      =
 |isbn                 =
 |ismn                 =
 |issn                 =
 |jfm                  =
 |jstor                =
 |lccn                 =
 |mr                   =
 |oclc                 =
 |ol                   =
 |osti                 =
 |pmc                  =
 |pmid                 =
 |rfc                  =
 |ssrn                 =
 |zbl                  =
 |id                   =
 |archive-url          =
 |archive-date         =
 |access-date          =
 |via                  =
 |lay-url              =
 |lay-source           =
 |lay-date             =
 |lay-format           =
 |quote                =
 |name-list-format     =
 |mode                 =
 |postscript           =
 |ref                  =
 }}
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Author's first name. Don't link.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Title of Wikipedia article about the first author. Don't link.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for 2nd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for 2nd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for 2nd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for 3rd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for 3rd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for 3rd author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for 4th author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for 4th author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for 4th author.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for 5th author. Similar: last6, etc.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for 5th author. Similar: first6, etc.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for 5th author. Similar: author-link6, etc.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Number (number of authors displayed) or etal (more authors)
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title See Display options below; not for lists of cited works
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Set to yes to separate the last author with " & "
داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for translator
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for translator
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for translator
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like last1, but for 2nd translator. Similar: translator-last3, etc.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like first1, but for 2nd translator. Similar: translator-first3, etc.
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title Like author-link1, but for 2nd transl. Similar: translator-link3, ...
display-translators داڕێژە:Hover title Like display-authors, but for translators
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title See Display options below; not for lists of cited works
داڕێژە:Hover title داڕێژە:Hover title
date
year
orig-year year or date
chapter This should be the title of the chapter cited. Do not wikilink "chapter" if "chapterurl" is provided
script-chapter
trans-chapter chapter or script-chapter
chapter-url chapter or script-chapter
chapter-format chapter-url
editor1-last may also use "editor-last"
editor1-first editor1-last may also use 'editor-first"
editor1-link editor1-last may also use "editor-link"
editor1-mask editor1-last
display-editors
title
script-title
trans-title title or script-title
url title or script-title
url-status archive-url
url-access url
format url
type
series
language
volume
others
edition Ordinal number
location publisher
publisher
publication-date
page choose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
pages choose one: "page", "pages", or "at". Use when content on multiple pages supports the article text.
at choose one: "page", "pages", or "at"
nopp page or pages set nopp to "yes" to suppress the "p." or "pp." before page numbers
arxiv
asin
bibcode
doi
doi-broken-date doi
isbn always include ISBN, if one has been assigned
issn
ismn
jfm
jstor
lccn
mr
oclc
ol
osti
pmc
pmid
rfc
ssrn
zbl
id
archive-url archive-date, url
archive-date archive-url
access-date url
via
lay-url
lay-source lay-url
lay-date lay-url
lay-format lay-url
quote
name-list-format vanc to emulate Vancouver style
mode cs1 or cs2
postscript
ref
If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Examples[دەستکاری]

Title

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious Book}}
Mysterious Book. 

Title and year

  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious Book |date=1901}}
Mysterious Book. 1901. 

Basic usage (single author)

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |authorlink=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs، Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs. 

Basic usage (two authors)

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |authorlink1=Joe Bloggs |last2=Bloggs |first2=Fred |authorlink2=Fred Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs}}
Bloggs، Joe؛ Bloggs، Fred (1974). Book of Bloggs. 

Basic usage with url (and access-date) and edition

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Joe |authorlink=Joe Bloggs |date=1974 |title=Book of Bloggs |edition=1st |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |access-date=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs، Joe (1974). Book of Bloggs (وەشانی 1st). لە ڕێکەوتی February 17, 2006 ھێنراوە. 

Citing a chapter in a book with different authors for different chapters and an editor

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Fred |editor-last=Doe |editor-first=John |title=Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7}}
Bloggs، Fred (January 1, 2001). "Chapter 2: The History of the Bloggs Family". In Doe، John. Big Compilation Book with Many Chapters and Distinct Chapter Authors. Book Publishers. پەڕەکان 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. 

Citing a chapter in a book with two joint authors and an editor

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |last2=Egg |first2=Fred |editor-last=Doe |editor-first=John |title=Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=January 1, 2001 |orig-year=1st pub. 1986 |pages=100–110 |chapter=Chapter 6: Getting There |chapterurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |isbn=978-1-234-56789-7 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Bloggs، Joe و Egg، Fred (January 1, 2001) [1st pub. 1986]. "Chapter 6: Getting There". In Doe، John. Big Book with Many Chapters and Two Co-authors. Book Publishers. پەڕەکان 100–110. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. 

Three authors, title with a piped wikilink, edition

  • {{cite book |last1=Bloggs |first1=Joe |authorlink1=Joe Bloggs |last2=Smith |first2=John |last3=Smythe |first3=Jim |title=[[A Thousand Acres|1000 Acres]] |edition=2nd}}
Bloggs، Joe؛ Smith، John؛ Smythe، Jim. 1000 Acres (وەشانی 2nd). 

Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (without volume and lastauthoramp)

  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G.M.S. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M. |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2007 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3}}
Playfair، I.S.O.؛ Stitt، G.M.S.؛ Molony، C.J.C.؛ Toomer، S.E. (2007) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، J.R.M. Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 

Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter (with volume and lastauthoramp)

  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G.M.S. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M. |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East |volume=Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2007 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Playfair، I.S.O.؛ Stitt، G.M.S.؛ Molony، C.J.C. و Toomer، S.E. (2007) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، J.R.M. Mediterranean and Middle East. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 

Date without day, wikilinked title and publisher, pages, edition, location

  • {{cite book |last1=Cordell |first1=Bruce R. |last2=Grubb |first2=Jeff |last3=Noonan |first3=David |date=September 2001 |title=[[Manual of the Planes]] |edition=3rd |publisher=Wizards of the Coast |location=Renton, Washington |isbn=0-7869-1850-0 |pages=134–137}}
Cordell، Bruce R.؛ Grubb، Jeff؛ Noonan، David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes (وەشانی 3rd). Renton, Washington: Wizards of the Coast. پەڕەکان 134–137. ISBN 0-7869-1850-0. 

Other language

  • {{cite book |last=Bloggs |first=Jean |date=1974 |title=Livre de Bloggs |edition=1st |language=French |trans-title=Book of Bloggs |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |access-date=February 17, 2006}}
Bloggs، Jean (1974). Livre de Bloggs [Book of Bloggs] (بە زمانی French) (وەشانی 1st). لە ڕێکەوتی February 17, 2006 ھێنراوە. 

Using a DOI

  • {{cite book |last=Mumford |first=David |authorlink=David Mumford |date=1999 |title=The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians |edition=2nd |publisher=Springer-Verlag |doi=10.1007/b62130 |isbn=354063293X}}
Mumford، David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians (وەشانی 2nd). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 354063293X. doi:10.1007/b62130. 

Using author-mask parameter

  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G.M.S. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |lastauthoramp=y}}
Playfair، I.S.O.؛ Stitt، G.M.S.؛ Molony، C.J.C. و Toomer، S.E. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، J.R.M. Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 
  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=F.C. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally (1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-66-1 |lastauthoramp=y |author-mask=2}}
——؛ Flynn، F.C.؛ Molony، C.J.C. و Toomer، S.E. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، J.R.M. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-66-1. 
  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Flynn |first2=F.C. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Gleave |first4=T.P. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=Sir James |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes Reach Their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-67-X |lastauthoramp=y |author-mask=2}}
——؛ Flynn، F.C.؛ Molony، C.J.C. و Gleave، T.P. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، Sir James. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume III: British Fortunes Reach Their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-67-X. 

Using display-authors parameter

  • {{cite book |last1=Playfair |first1=I.S.O. |authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair |last2=Stitt |first2=G.M.S. |last3=Molony |first3=C.J.C. |last4=Toomer |first4=S.E. |editor-last=Butler |editor-first=J.R.M. |editor-link=James Ramsay Montagu Butler |series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series |title=Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941) |publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, East Sussex |date=2004 |orig-year=1st pub. [[HMSO]]:1954 |isbn=1-845740-65-3 |display-authors=1}}
Playfair، I.S.O.؛ و ھی تر. (2004) [1st pub. HMSO:1954]. دەستکاریکەر: Butler، J.R.M. Mediterranean and Middle East Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, East Sussex: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3. 

Parameters[دەستکاری]

Syntax[دەستکاری]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.


COinS[دەستکاری]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is generally discouraged as many of these templates will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters:

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publicationplace=, |publication-place=
  • |date=, |year=, |publicationdate=, |publication-date=
  • |series=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapterurl=, |chapter-url=, |contributionurl=, |contribution-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |Author#=, |authors#=, |author#-last=, |author-last#=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • any of the identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)


What's new[دەستکاری]

What's new or changed recently
Parameter New or changed param
|script-work= New. Name of the |work= in its original script (Chinese, Cyrillic, Devanagari, etc.) if not a Latin script.
|trans-work= New. Name of the |work= in English, if the original is in another language.
|url-status= New. Replaces dead-url; list of values has changed. Interacts with archive-url. See url-status.

Deprecated[دەستکاری]

The following parameters are deprecated and will no longer work. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • access-date · accessday · accessdaymonth · accessed · accessmonth · accessmonthday · accessyear: Use accessdate to include the full date of access.
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.


Description[دەستکاری]

Authors[دەستکاری]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last9, first9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through author9.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9. Aliases: author1-link through author9-link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title[دەستکاری]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.
    • trans_title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans_title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;


  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release.


  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans_chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans_chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.


  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.

Date[دەستکاری]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[١] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more]. Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: Name of the month or season of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Do not wikilink.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.


Publisher[دەستکاری]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. Not normally included for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.


Edition, series, volume[دەستکاری]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.


  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.


  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold— if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.


In-source locations[دەستکاری]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content. Displays preceded with p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded with pp. unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.


URL[دەستکاری]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[١] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[١] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ ی ا Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.


Chapter URL[دەستکاری]

  • chapter-url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by chapter or contribution can be found. Cannot be used if those parameters are wikilinked. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. Aliases: chapterurl, contribution-url, section-url.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.

Anchor[دەستکاری]


Identifiers[دەستکاری]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier.


Quote[دەستکاری]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.


Editors[دەستکاری]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."


Laysummary[دەستکاری]

  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.


Display options[دەستکاری]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To control the displayed number of author names, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, the only the first eight cited authors are displayed; subsequent authors beyond eight are represented in the published citation by "et al." If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

Subscription or registration required[دەستکاری]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation. Nota bene: access icons do not display correctly for editors who use Modern skin.

Four access levels can be used:

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters[دەستکاری]

Sources linked by |url=, |chapter-url=, |entry-url=, |article-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read. When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.

url-holding and access-indicator parameters
url access allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |chapter-url-access=dagger
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=

dagger|contribution-url-access= not currently defined; use its alias |chapter-url-access=

Access indicator for named identifiers[دەستکاری]

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
identifier access allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=dagger
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named-identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=
Ambiguous access parameters[دەستکاری]

The parameters |registration=yes and |subscription=yes can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use |url-access=registration and |url-access=subscription instead, when the restriction applies to |url=. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: (deprecated) For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); yields to subscription if both are set. Use the appropriate access-indicator parameter
  • subscription: (deprecated) For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set. Use the appropriate access-indicator parameter

Setting |registration= or |subscription= to any value other than y, yes, or true will generate an error message.

TemplateData[دەستکاری]

See Template:Cite book/TemplateData.

See also[دەستکاری]

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.