بۆ ناوەڕۆک بازبدە

جزیەت

لە ئینسایکڵۆپیدیای ئازادی ویکیپیدیاوە

جزیەت ساڵانە باجێکە کە زیمیەکان دەبێت بیدەن بۆ ئەوەی لە خاکە موسڵمانەکاندا بژین و لەلایەن موسڵمانانەوە بپارێزرێن.[١][٢][٣] قورئان و فەرموودەکان باس لە جزیەت دەکەن بە ئیجباری.[٤] نرخی پارەی جیزیا بەندە بەوەوە کە دیمیەکان چەندە دەوڵەمەندن، ئەگەر دەوڵەمەندتر بن، بڕە پارەیەکی زیاتریان هەیە بۆ ئەوەی بیدەن، ئەگەر هەژارتر بن، بڕە پارەیەکی کەمتریان هەیە بۆ ئەوەی بیدەن.[٥]

شێخەکان موسڵمانان داوایان لە پیاوی پێگەیشتوو، ئازاد، عەقڵانی ناو کۆمەڵگەی زیمە دەکرد کە جزیە بدەن،[٦] لە کاتێکدا ژن، منداڵ، بەساڵاچوو، کەمئەندام، نەخۆش، شێت، کۆیلە،[٧][٨][٩][١٠][١١] و هەژارانی زۆر لە پارەدان بەخشراو بوون.[٨][١٢][١٣]

سەرچاوەکان[دەستکاری]

  1. ^ Abdel-Haleem, Muhammad (2010). Understanding the Qur'ān: Themes and Style. I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd. pp. 70, 79. ISBN 978-1845117894.
  2. ^ Abou Al-Fadl 2002, p. 21. "When the Qur'an was revealed, it was common inside and outside of Arabia to levy poll taxes against alien groups. Building upon the historical practice, classical Muslim jurists argued that the poll tax is money collected by the Islamic polity from non-Muslims in return for the protection of the Muslim state. If the Muslim state was incapable of extending such protection to non-Muslims, it was not supposed to levy a poll tax."
  3. ^ Jizyah ٨ی ئەیلوولی ٢٠١٥ لە وەیبەک مەشین، ئەرشیڤ کراوە. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2010), Oxford University Press, Quote: Jizyah: Compensation. Poll tax levied on non-Muslims, such as Jews and Christians, as a form of tribute and in exchange for an exemption from military service, based on Quran 9:29.
  4. ^ Sabet, Amr (2006), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24:4, Oxford; pp. 99–100.
  5. ^ Abu Khalil, Shawkiy (2006). al-Islām fī Qafaṣ al-ʾIttihām الإسلام في قفص الإتهام (بە عەرەبی). Dār al-Fikr. p. 149. ISBN 978-1575470047. Quote: و يعين مقدار الجزية إعتبارا لحالتهم الإقتصادية، فيؤخد من الموسرين أكثر و من الوسط أقل منه و من الفقراء شيء قليل جدا. و على الدين لا معاش لهم أو هم عالة على غيرهم يعفون من أداء الجزية. Translation: "The amount of jizya is determined in consideration of their economic status, so that more is taken from the prosperous, less from the middle [class], and a very small amount from the poor (fuqaraʾ). Those who do not have any means of livelihood or depend on support of others are exempted from paying the jizya." (online)
  6. ^ M. Zawati, Hilmi (2002). Is Jihād a Just War?: War, Peace, and Human Rights Under Islamic and Public International Law (Studies in religion & society). Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 63–4. ISBN 978-0773473041.
  7. ^ Wael, B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice and Transformations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 332–3. ISBN 978-0-521-86147-2.
  8. ^ ئ ا Ellethy 2014, p. 181. "[...] the insignificant amount of this yearly tax, the fact that it was progressive, that elders, poor people, handicapped, women, children, monks and hermits were exempted, leave no doubt about exploitation or persecution of those who did not accept Islam. Comparing its amount to the obligatory zaka which an ex-dhimmi should give to the Muslim state in case he converts to Islam dismisses the claim that its aim was forced conversions to Islam."
  9. ^ Alshech, Eli (2003). "Islamic Law, Practice, and Legal Doctrine: Exempting the Poor from the Jizya under the Ayyubids (1171-1250)". Islamic Law and Society. 10 (3): 348–375. doi:10.1163/156851903770227584. ...jurists divided the dhimma community into two major groups. The first group consists of all adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community, while the second includes all other dhimmas (i.e., women, slaves, minors, and the insane). Jurists generally agree that members of the second group are to be granted a "blanket" exemption from jizya payment.
  10. ^ Rispler-Chaim, Vardit (2007). Disability in Islamic law. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-1402050527. The Hanbali position is that boys, women, the mentally insane, the zamin, and the blind are exempt from paying jizya. This view is supposedly shared by the Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Malikis.
  11. ^ Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam, pp. 192-3.
  12. ^ Ghazi, Kalin & Kamali 2013, pp. 240–1.
  13. ^ Abdel-Haleem 2012, pp. 75–6, 77.